Wolverine, (Gulo gulo), also called glutton, carcajou, or skunk bear, member of the weasel family (Mustelidae) that lives in cold northern latitudes, especially in timbered areas, around the world. The legs are short, somewhat bowed; the soles, hairy; the semiretractile claws, long and sharp; the ears, short; and the teeth, strong. It resembles a small, squat, broad bear 65–90 cm (26–36 inches) long, excluding the bushy, 13–26-cm (5–10-inch) tail; shoulder height is 36–45 cm (14–18 inches), and weight is 9–30 kg (20–66 pounds). The coarse, long-haired coat is blackish brown with a light brown stripe extending from each side of the neck along the body to the base of the tail. The animal has anal glands that secrete an unpleasant-smelling fluid.
The wolverine is noted for its strength, cunning, fearlessness, and voracity. It may follow traplines to cabins and devour food stocks or carry off portable items; its offensive odour permeates the invaded cabin. The wolverine is a solitary, nocturnal hunter, preying on all manner of game and not hesitating to attack sheep, deer, or small bears. Wolverines are also adept scavengers, and thus a large portion of their diet comes from scavenging the carcasses of elk, caribou, and other animals. No animal except humans hunts the wolverine. Its fur is valued as trimming for parkas because frost and frozen breath can easily be brushed off the smooth hairs. Solitary during most of the year, the wolverine has a short courtship in February or March. A litter contains one to five young; the female’s gestation period is about nine months.
Wolverines are omnivores; they eat both meat and vegetation. Typical meals for a wolverine include large game like caribou, moose and mountain goats; smaller animals like ground squirrels and rodents; and even birds’ eggs and berries. They like meat best, though, and will go to great lengths to get it. They can travel 15 miles (24 kilometers) in a 24-hour period in search of food and will even eat dead animals they did not kill.
Wolverines have a keen sense of smell; they can smell prey 20 feet under the snow. They will dig down into burrows and kill hibernating animals.
Wolverines are sneaky when finding food, too. They have strong jaws and teeth, and can crush a carcass and munch right through the bone. They have been known to eat the bones and teeth of their prey.
Wolverines prefer colder areas because they use the snow for dens, besides food storage. They live in the Arctic and subarctic, in grasslands, Alpine forests, taiga, boreal forests and tundra of Europe, Asia, and in North America in the northern latitudes.
Wolverines are solitary creatures, and need great swaths of territory to roam. Males mark their territory with their scent and only share their turf with females. Their territories can range from 40 miles (65 km) to more than 372 miles (600 km).
These hunters are nocturnal, which means they sleep during the day and hunt at night.
Methods of hunting permitted for use:
- ambush hunting,
- trapping (automatic trap)
Permitted hunting tools:
Hunting fire smooth-bore long-barreled arms; hunting firearm with a rifled barrel of caliber. No more than 8 mm and a seating distancenot more than 51 mm. Iincluding a caliber of 5.6 mm for a rim-fire cartridge. Hunting firearm combined weapons (smooth-bore and rifted gun). Including with rebarreling and auxiliary rifled barrels of 5.6 mm caliber for rim-fire cartridge; traps (automatic traps). Including deadfalls of various types, mole traps, cherkans (wooden traps for animals living in lodges), gin traps, snares. And other analogues of automatic traps, as well as nets, cages, live traps and etc; cold bladed hunting weapon.
It is allowed to use a hunting pneumatic weapon with a muzzle energy of no more than 25 J for taking a chipmunk. Ground squirrel, ground squirrel, hamster, water vole. Hunting for a lynx, badger, wolverine. Hare and beaver using a hunting firearm with a rifled barrel of 5.6 mm caliber for a rim-fire cartridge is not performed.
Wolverine fur is highly valued and widely used in the Arctic and sub-Arctic as ruffs or trim on parkas and other garments.
Wolverine and the others have stiff guard hairs plus softer underhairs. Wolverine hairs are smooth and do not have microscopic barbs like the hairs of other animal fur.
The variability in the stiff and soft hairs make for a better wind break and provide more insulation around the face.