Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (YaNAO), which is located in the north-west of Siberia, extends from the Kara Sea to the Yugra, from the Ural Mountains to Krasnoyarsk krai. Despite its territorial affiliation with Tyumen Region, it is in fact an independent subject of the Russian Federation with its own government, the right of legislative initiative and the representation in federal bodies.
The administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District is the city Salekhard, located at the confluence of the Polui river in the Ob river and populated by almost thirty thousand people. Since the 1960s began the exploration and development of hydrocarbon fields in the region. At that time the Gubkinsky, Urengoy and Medvezhye deposits were discovered. Yamal is producing more than 90% of Russia’s gas and more than 20 % of the world’s gas for today. Nowadays the region with a half-million population ranks third in tax deduction to the state budget.
FISHING IN YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT
Sea bays, numerous clear lakes and rivers make fishing in Yamal excitable and unforgettable. In the region, Almost 70 percent of Russian whitefishes (coregonus) – broad whitefish, nelma, muxun are concentrated in the region.
Fisheries include the Tazovskaya and Obskaya Lips, the water areas of Pura, Nadym, Ob, Taz, Yambuto Lake, Neyto, Yaroto. Mainly smelt, taimen, pike, burbot, omul, vendace, peled, nelma, muxun, arctic whitefish, sterlet are mined on commercial scales. Siberian sturgeon is especially protected, and its catch is prohibited everywhere.
Sturgeons come for wintering and graziery to the Ob and Tazov Bay, while whitefish, salmon, taimen, lenok, muxun and nelma go to the pure and oxygen-rich waters of the Taz River. Vendace, smelt, chira, muxun, nelma, arctic whitefish and sturgeon are caught in the sea bays. The lakes of Yamal are rich in freshwater and arctic whitefish, peled, less often there are muxun, pike and burbot. Pike, common roach, ide, perch, nelma, broad whitefish, peled, arctic whitefish and muxun, which are caught in the rivers, are especially appreciated among the peoples of the North, as it has fatty meat, which is suitable for any method of preparation and harvesting for a future use, especially for stroganina.
Fishing in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District often takes place in remote and hard-to-reach places, where fishermen are delivered by motor boats, kayaks and even helicopters. Pike is found in almost all inland waters. Its average weight differs from 3 to 6 kg, and trophy specimens – range from 18 to 25 kg. Many fishermen prefer catching at late summer and early autumn, when the night sky is strewn with stars, the days are still warm, but the mosquito season has already ended.
Large populations of broad whitefish, muksun and nelma live in the river Ob, as well as, grayling, сhebak, pike and perch in the river Sob’. The mountain rivers of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region are so abundant in grayling that the methods of fishing are no longer important – just a hook is needed! The largest specimens are found in the headwaters of rivers.
There is taimen in Sob’, Taza, Khudoseya, Shirta, Karalka, Vitalka, Pokalka and Ratta. Occasionally, plaice and navaga enter the mouth of the rivers, and the Shchuchye Lake is known for the catch of arctic char, whose large specimens are visible in the water, looking like logs fell to the bottom of the river.
It is allowed to catch taimen, broad whitefish, peled, nelma, bottom whitefish, muxun and vandace in the areas of reservoirs allotted for sport and recreational fishing.
HUNTING IN YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT
The climate of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District contributed to the formation of a special animal world adapted to the cold weather. The world’s largest herds of deer graze in the region, forty species of living mammals, giant walruses, seals, ringed seals, beluga whales and sea hares inhabit the coast of the Kara Sea and its islands. There are many hares, polar wolves, Arctic foxes, ermines, wolverines and weasels in the tundra zone, as well as, sables, squirrels, elks and bears in the taiga.
Especially stands out the abundance of the animals in the area of the Kizym-cape on the Zazhmchar River. Where bears, foxes, wolves, moose, hares, feathered wildfowl live. In spring, waterfowl are hunted near the village of Yar-Sale during the migration period. Overflow of the Syn, Ob and Voikar rivers, where different birds can be found, is a popular period of hunting.
The methods of hunting correspond to certain parameters in the Tyumen region. The hunting periods may sometimes differ. In spring, the hunting season for waterfowl lasts not 10 days, as everywhere, but 15, but begins later – from 12 May. The autumn period covers the last five days of August and the whole September. Extraction of migratory birds begins on the last Saturday of August and ends with its departure. From the second half of September to the end of February, it is permitted to shoot out forest wildfowl.
Terms can be slightly shifted each year and are clarified by a decree of the governor of the region.
TOURISM IN YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT
There are more than 500 monuments of archeology and 17 of the history and architecture in the region. Those are interested in antiquity can visit and even participate in the excavations of ancient settlements. Nadymsky with its famous chapel, Ust-Poluisky near Salekhard, Mangazeya near the village of Sidorovsk in the Krasnoselkup district.
You can find 96 monuments of cultural heritage in the region. Among them – objects of ethnic culture on the Lake Maloe Muzykantovo. Places of pagan cults of Lamzento-sho and Tarezniyah-hehe, sanctuaries of Sidyapelyato and Nyaharyakh, a sacred place on the Seyakhi coast.
The picturesque nature of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District endears to ecological tourism. Which is limited for now with visits to reserves, wildlife sanctuaries and natural monuments. Traditional fishing for nelma, pike, grayling or char, seasonal trophy hunting for waterfowl or fur-bearing animals, extreme recreation. Fans of river cruises can make summer trips along the Ob river from Salekhard to a tourist catamaran. And those who wish to collect berries and mushrooms will not be left without the boletus. Freckles and milk mushrooms, blueberries, cloudberries, blueberries or cowberries.
In winter, tourists are taken by snowmobiles to the stands of reindeer breeders. And in summer they are invited to visit the park museum of the village of Muzhi. An interesting ethnographic exposition is exhibited in the museum complex named after Shimanovsky in Salekhard. There is also a unique archaeological collection. In the factories of the Priuralsky distrcit you can visit a campground. There are 179 ethnographic objects in the district.