Jewish Autonomous Region (EAO) is the only autonomous region in Russia. A unique administrative entity besides Israel, created for the residence of Jews. It occupies a little more than 36 thousand km² of territory between Khabarovsk krai, Amur region and China. Officially, the region exists since 1934. But the settlement of this sparsely populated part of the Amur area began in 1925 at the suggestion of Lenin. The resettlement of the Jews to the Far East solved several problems at once.
Firstly, when the NEP folded, many craftsmen and merchants, including Jews, were left without work, and something had to be done about it. Secondly, the eviction of Jews from the central regions reduced the intensity of anti-Semitism there. Thirdly, the problems of the region were solved, in which a small number of residents could not ensure the security of the border with China. The cultivation of fertile land that could yield a significant harvest for starving Russia.
FISHING IN JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION
Amateur and sport fishing in Jewish Autonomous Region is diverse and exciting. Rare and even exotic fish can be identified among the 37 local species. Fishermen will be pleased with one of two varieties of amur, giant kaluga, burbot, sturgeon, lenok, silver carp, Siberian taimen and others.
Seven of all this diversity species are considered rare and protected by the state. Three local fisheries specialize in salmon farming. The upper parts of Bira and Bijan are used for spawning by a passing chum.
Lakes of Jewish Autonomous Region are not different and often belong to the category of oxbows, but there are better places for fishing – on the larger natural reservoirs: Karasiny, Lebediny, Zabelovsky, Krugly, Bolshoy, Dlinny lakes, located along the Amur riverbed. There is a salmon, bream, burbot and carp in Zabelovsky and Lebediny. One of the lakes Tyoploe never freezes. Pike, crucian carp, whitefish, carp, amur, catfish and common carp are caught there all year round.
The river network, which is a web of left tributaries of the Amur and smaller streams, stretches over 8 thousand kilometers. Among the rivers with a length of more than 100 kilometers Bira, Sutara, Bijan, Ungun, Samara, and Ikura are especially interesting for fishing. Part of the Amur, which falls on Jewish Autonomous Region, is 584 kilometers.
Amur sturgeon called Kaluga is the largesy fish of the Amur river, unless of the whole Russia. The maximum caught individual reached 6 meters in length and 1200 kilograms of weight. Yellowcheek can be caught up to two meters long and up to 40 kilograms, and 3-meter Soldatov’s catfish can weigh up to 70.
In the rivers of the Amur basin, burbot is active even in winter and spawns on the coldest days with the minimum temperature of water. In the inaccessible upper reaches of the Pompeyevka River, fishermen can find huge supplies of lenok and grayling. Pike, banded catfish, crucian carp, Amur catfish, skin carp, rudd, carp, Amur sleeper. Mudfish are most often taken on the plain water reservoirs. In mountain rivers whitefish, grayling, lenok, golyan and gudgeon are caught.
Only under the permits you can fish Arctic char, Pacific salmon, salmon trout, bull-trout, chir, omul, Arseniev’s perl oyster, sturgeon, kaluga, bighead. The catch of white amur, red salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon and chum salmon is prohibited. Fishing in Jewish Autonomous Region is not allowed at spawning grounds and on migration routes in September and October, in fish wintering holes – from the third decade of October to the end of May. Without permits, fishing in the border areas of the Amur and its tributaries is prohibited.
HUNTING IN JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION
The animal world of the region includes 60 species of mammals and 350 of birds. It has been formed from representatives of various landscape complexes.
The Amur fauna is represented by a forest Far Eastern cat. A Manchurian hare, a Himalayan bear, a tube-nosed bat, a Far Eastern tortoise, a pale weasal, a raccoon dog. Okhotsk-Kamchatka fauna is presented by a sable, brown bear, musk deer, hare, squirrel and a number of birds. Their habitats are forests, which cover the slopes of the branches of the Maly Khingan Range. The Dauro-Mongolian steppe fauna, which lives on the steppes and in the valley of the Amur. Is represented by a Daurian partridge, Daurian crane and others. The high-mountain species found in the northern parts of the Maly Khingan Range are represented by: Altai pika, mountain thrush and doppel, peregrine falcon, white partridge, wren, golden eagle and other birds.
Commercial hunting in Jewish Autonomous Region can be carried out on 5 species of ungulates, 17 fur-bearing and 60 birds. In fact, 9 species of fur-bearing animals, 3 species of ungulates and 27 birds are hunted. Many people hunt pheasants that have bred in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region in significant quantities. But there are temporary prohibitions on its production, depending on the population size.
Among ungulates, hunting roe deer, wild boar and red deer are actively hunted. The number of licenses allocated for wild boar and red deer is sufficient to meet demand. Unlike hunting for roe deer due to its small number. About 70% of the roe deer livestock died in the snowiest winter of 1972-73, after which it did not reach the previous scale.
Licenses for bear are at low demand due to a high cost. Naturally, shooting of Ussuri tigers is prohibited. The last of them was killed in 1982, but in the last decade they began to appear again on the territory of Jewish Autonomous Region, coming from China.
The hunting grounds of Jewish Autonomous Region, assigned to the regional hunting society, occupy 1533 thousand hectares. Terms of hunting have some restrictions: hunting for the wild boar takes place from the beginning of autumn to January 10. For deer and moose – from early November to the end of the year. For sable – from October 25 to February 20. From the same date until January 10 – a hare, a wolf, a raccoon dog, a mink, a squirrel, a lynx and a column can be hunted. Brown bear mustn’t be shot in April and May. There are spring and summer bans on the swamp and waterfowl, different for distinct species of birds.
There are additional restrictions on shooting elk: adult males are prohibited from shooting in September. Cubs up to a year – in the first half of January. In view of all these restrictions, it is prohibited to hunt with gundogs, spaniels, retrievers and hunting birds after 31 December.