It is a mammal of the Even-toed ungulate order, the Sucidae family, the Sus genus. It is the ancestor of a domestic pig.
Hunting for a wild boar is quite dangerous, as it often attacks hunters. The males inflict lacerate wounds with their powerful fangs. The females in turn knock down unwary hunters from their feet and beat them with front hooves. When a boar attacks, it is best to start aside in front of the animal, as a boar, which has darted past, rarely returns back for a new attack.
The wild boar is a bulky, massively built suid with short and relatively thin legs. The trunk is short and massive, while the hindquarters are comparatively underdeveloped. The region behind the shoulder blades rises into a hump, and the neck is short and thick, to the point of being nearly immobile. The animal’s head is very large, taking up to one third of the body’s entire length.[The structure of the head is well suited for digging. The head acts as a plough, while the powerful neck muscles allow the animal to upturn considerable amounts of soil: it is capable of digging 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) into frozen ground and can upturn rocks weighing 40–50 kg (88–110 lb). The eyes are small and deep-set, and the ears long and broad. The species has well developed canine teeth, which protrude from the mouths of adult males. The middle hooves are larger and more elongated than the lateral ones, and are capable of quick movements.The animal can run at a maximum speed of 40 km/h and jump at a height of 140–150 cm (55–59 in). Sexual dimorphism is very pronounced in the species, with males being typically 5–10% larger and 20–30% heavier than females. Males also sport a mane running down the back, which is particularly apparent during autumn and winter. The canine teeth are also much more prominent in males, and grow throughout life. The upper canines are relatively short and grow sideways early in life, though gradually curve upwards. The lower canines are much sharper and longer, with the exposed parts measuring 10–12 cm (3.9–4.7 in) in length. In the breeding period, males develop a coating of subcutaneous tissue, which may be 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) thick, extending from the shoulder blades to the rump, thus protecting vital organs during fights. Males sport a roughly egg-sized sack near the opening of the penis, which collects urine and emits a sharp odour. The function of this is not fully understood.
Boars are experts at concealment and they have a nose better than any of the deer species. There are many ways to find the bedding and feeding areas of wild Russian boar. The first is to look for wallows on the ground. These are areas where the boar have wallowed the earth out to make cool damp bedding areas. The number and size of these indentions in the ground will indicate if your trophy is visiting the area.
Another sign to look for are rubs. Wild hogs will always rub down the sides of trees to relieve themselves of parasites and to mark their territory. So if you see several trees in an area with dirty rubs 28 to 40 inches off the ground you know there’s a big boar in the area.
In Russia, the boar is found in significant areas of the European part of Russia (except for the northeastern tundra and taiga regions), the Caucasus, and southern Siberia; in the Tien Shan it goes up to 3300 m (for comparison: in the Caucasus – up to 2600 m, in the Pyrenees – up to 2400 m, in the Carpathians – up to 1900 m).
Methods of hunting permitted for use:
- using wheel transport,
- ambush hunting,
- using hunting dogs
Permitted hunting tools:
Hunting firearm with a rifled barrel of caliber not less than 7 mm (but not more than 12 mm) and a seating distance of at least 51 mm; hunting fire smooth-bore long-barreled arms, including threaded length no more than 140 mm and the use of bullet cartridges; hunting firearm combined weapons (smooth-bore and rifted gun), including with rebarreling and auxiliary rifled barrels; cold bladed hunting weapon. It is allowed to hunt for a wild boar at the age of up to 1 year with the use of buck shots.
Of smooth-bore hunting weapons, the best for hunting wild boar is the double-barreled 12-caliber.